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Australian consular advice: www.smartraveller.gov.au/zw-cgi/view/Advice/
The preventive measures you need to take while travelling in Developed Countries
including Western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand, depend on
the areas you visit and the length of time you stay. For most areas of these
countries, you should observe health precautions similar to those that would
apply while travelling in Australia.
diarrhoea, the number one illness in Travellers, can be caused by
viruses, bacteria, or parasites, which can contaminate food or water. Infections
may cause diarrhoea and vomiting (E. coli, Salmonella, cholera,
and parasites), fever (typhoid fever and toxoplasmosis), or liver damage
(hepatitis). Make sure your food and drinking water are safe.
A certificate of yellow fever vaccination may be required for entry
into certain of these countries if you are coming from countries in tropical
South America or subSaharan Africa. (There is no risk for yellow fever in any of
Tick borne encephalitis, a viral infection of the central nervous system,
occurs chiefly in Central and Western Europe and parts of America. Travellers
are at risk who visit or work in forested areas during the summer months and who
consume unpasteurized dairy products. To prevent tick borne encephalitis, as
well as Lyme disease, Travellers should take precautions to prevent tick
Vaccine Recommendations (as
Appropriate for Age):
See your doctor at least 4–6 weeks before your trip to
allow time for shots to take effect.
- Influenza vaccine - Always worthwhile
- Hepatitis A or immune globulin (IG). You are not at
increased risk in Northern and Western Europe, but there is some risk in
Southern Europe and the countries bordering the Mediterranean, as well as
- Hepatitis B, if you might be exposed to blood (for
example, health-care workers), have sexual contact with the local
population, stay longer than 6 months in Southern Europe, or be exposed
through medical treatment.
- Update your routine
vaccinations - (ADT & Sabin*
)Hepatitis B vaccine is now recommended for all infants and for children
ages 11–12 years who did not complete the series as infants.
- Consider Rabies
vaccination if cycling around Europe or other at risk activity (cave
explorers, animal handling - ( details
All Travellers should take the following
precautions, no matter the destination:
- Wash hands often with soap and water.
- Because motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury among
Travellers, walk and drive defensively. Avoid travel at night if possible
and always use seat belts.
- Always use latex condoms to reduce the risk of HIV and other sexually
- Don't eat or drink dairy products unless you know they have been
- Don't share needles with anyone.
- Never eat undercooked ground beef and poultry, raw eggs, and unpasteurized
dairy products. Raw shellfish is particularly dangerous to persons who have
liver disease or compromised immune systems.
- To reduce any risk of acquiring Mad Cow Disease (BSE - vCJD)
from food, travellers to Europe may consider either avoiding beef and beef
products altogether or selecting beef or beef products, such as solid pieces
of muscle meat (rather than brains or beef products such as burgers and
sausages), that might have a reduced opportunity for contamination with
tissues that may harbour the BSE agent. Milk and milk products from cows are
not believed to pose any risk for transmitting the BSE agent. - Lawrence
Schonberger, Ermias Belay CDC last reviewed June 30, 2003
see also - Travel medical
Management of diarrhoea:
Bottled or canned beverages (eg carbonated mineral water), tea, broth & foods such as rice, bananas, papaya (pawpaw), potatoes and dry biscuits are tolerated best. Take gastrolyte sacchets for children. When diarrhoea is prolonged and with fever seek medical attention
Antimotility drugs ('stoppers'): eg. Imodium (loperamide) - helpful in relieving diarrhoea and cramps. Do not use if high fever or blood in motions. Do not use in children under 6, and be cautious in children under 12.
Antibiotics. Diarrhoea with high fever, distressing symptoms or blood in motions: eg (single dose Norfloxacin 800mg or Azithromycin 1 Gm ). Nb Safe for children >12 months and in pregnancy.
Prolonged diarrhoea greater than 10 days and without fever: A bowel parasite "giardiasis" is the commonest cause. Usually treated with tinidasole (Fasigyn) - 4 x 500mg tablets (2g) in a single dose
Examination after travel: It is advisable (if not essential) to visit your
local doctor promptly if you
- suffer from a chronic disease, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes
mellitus, chronic respiratory disease;
- experience illness in the weeks following their return home, particularly
if fever, persistent diarrhoea, vomiting, jaundice, urinary disorders, skin
disease or genital infection occurs;
- consider that you may have been exposed to a serious infectious disease while
- have spent more than 3 months in a developing country.
August 24, 2014